Staff

M. Sc. Doaa Ahmed

Contact

  • Mail:
  • Phone: 09131/85-27610
  • Fax: 09131/85-28730
  • Room: 03.240
  • Cauerstraße 9
    91058 Erlangen

About Doaa Mahmoud Ahmed Ahmed

Biography

Doaa Ahmed was born in Ismailia, Egypt in 1988. She received the B.Sc. degree  (with Honours) in Communications and Electronics Engineering from Suez Canal University, Egypt, in 2010 and the M.Sc. degree in Communications and Multimedia Engineering from Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany, in 2016.

From 2010 to 2014, she was a Research and Teaching Assistant with the Chair of Communications and Electronics, Suez Canal University, Egypt. She is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree in Electronics and Medical Engineering at Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Areas of Interest

  • Human Body Communications
  • Electromagnetics and Antennas 
  • Molecular Communications

Open thesis projetcs

Design of a molecular communication  receiver that is able to separate the received particles based on their sizes.

Molecular communication uses molecules to transmit and receive signals rather than the electrical signal or electromagnetic waves used in the traditional communication systems. In our model, we use super-paramagnetic iron oxide  nanoparticles (SPIONs) as information carriers because of their magnetic properties. SPIONs are also biocompatible, therefore they are widely used in the medical applications. A suspension of SPIONs is released in a water flow until being received and detected at the receiver side. The receiver is represented by a coil with the tube goes through its core, when the particles are released in the water flow they travel with the flow until they pass through the core of the coil that generates electrical signal relative to the number of particles in its core. From the telecommunications perspective, when the received signal strength increases this can be used to represent bit 1, on the contradict, when no change in the received signal is detected, this can be translated to bit 0. From theory, when we apply external magnetic field to the model, we will be able to overcome the advection flow,  reorient the particles and change their directions based on their size. We aim to find a student who has a good background in the magnetic field and fluid theory, familiar with COMSOL software to design a simulation-based model, in which different particle sizes are being injected into the channel  and separated at the receiver, which will help increasing the capacity of the channel.

Awards

  • M. Bartunik, M. Lübke, H. Unterweger, C. Alexiou, S. Meyer, D. Ahmed, G. Fischer, W. Wicke, V. Jamali Kooshkghazi, R. Schober, and J. Kirchner, Best Paper Award, 6th ACM International Conference on Nanoscale Computing and Communication, 2019. [Bibtex]
    @prize{bartunik_prize_2019,
    abstract = {Presented for the paper "Novel Receiver for Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in a Molecular Communication Setting" published at ACM NanoCom 2019.},
    author = {Bartunik, Max and Lübke, Maximilian and Unterweger, Harald and Alexiou, Christoph and Meyer, Sebastian and Ahmed, Doaa and Fischer, Georg and Wicke, Wayan and Jamali Kooshkghazi, Vahid and Schober, Robert and Kirchner, Jens},
    booktitle = {6th ACM International Conference on Nanoscale Computing and Communication},
    cris = {bartunik_prize_2019},
    year = {2019},
    month = {09},
    day = {26},
    title = {Best Paper Award},
    type = {20773-Kleiner Preis},
    }

COPYRIGHT NOTICE: Copyright and all rights of the material above are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by the appropriate copyright. The material may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.

COPYRIGHT NOTICE FOR IEEE PUBLICATIONS: © IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.

COPYRIGHT NOTICE FOR EUMA PUBLICATIONS: © EUMA. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from European Microwave Association(EUMA) must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.

Publications

2019

  • D. Ahmed, J. Kirchner, and G. Fischer, "Signal Transmission with Intra-body and Inter-body Communications (Simulation-based Models)" in 13th EAI International Conference on Body Area Networks (BODYNETS 2018), Oulu, Finland, 2019. [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{ahmed2018,
    abstract = {In this paper, we investigate two types of data transmission in human body communication (HBC) with galvanic coupling: Intra-body communication along a human arm and inter-body communication between
    two arms in touch. For the former, the effect of bending the arm is investigated, too. The arms were modeled
    as five-layers concentric cylinders of different types of tissue. For simulation, the finite element method (FEM) COMSOL Multiphysics5.3a software was used. The influence of different HBC key parameters including applied frequency, distance between transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX), bending, contact area between the contiguous models, and induced current were investigated. The results show that the transmission loss increases with the increase of the transmission length and operating frequency. The electrical potential is directly proportional to the induced current. Bending helps to improve the detected signal in the cases of short distance between TX and RX around the curvature. For distant transceivers, both straight and bended models tend to behave in a close manner. However, no joints are added to the model. The signal degradation in inter-body communication is considerably higher compared to intra-body communication at the same horizontal distance between TX and RX. At frequencies above 200 kHz, both inter-body and intra-body communication give close values when the contact area between the arms covers the distance between TX and RX electrodes. In addition, by increasing the contact area and avoiding gaps between the models, the detected signal is improved. The results illustrate the main determinants of information transmission between both sensors within a body-sensors-network and between different person.
    }, author = {Ahmed, Doaa and Kirchner, Jens and Fischer, Georg}, language = {English}, booktitle = {13th EAI International Conference on Body Area Networks (BODYNETS 2018)}, cris = {https://cris.fau.de/converis/publicweb/publication/203249033}, year = {2019}, month = {10}, day = {02}, eventdate = {2018-10-02/2018-10-03}, faupublication = {yes}, keywords = {Cole-Cole expressions; dielectric properties; human tissue; finite element model; galvanic coupling; human body communication; inter-body communication; intra-body communication}, peerreviewed = {Yes}, title = {Signal Transmission with Intra-body and Inter-body Communications (Simulation-based Models)}, type = {Konferenzschrift}, venue = {Oulu, Finland}, }
  • D. Ahmed, H. Unterweger, G. Fischer, R. Schober, and J. Kirchner, "Characterization of an Inductance-based Detector in Molecular Communication Testbed Based on Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles" in IEEE SENSORS 2019, Montreal, Canada, Canada, 2019. [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{ahmed2019a,
    abstract = {Molecular communication (MC), using chemicals or particles, is a promising approach to bridge the gaps of
    conventional communication systems, e.g. in nano-scale or in pipelines. Our testbed depends on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as information carriers, which are detected using a susceptometer. In this paper, we study how the position and distribution of particles near the susceptometer,
    i.e., coil, affect its detected signal. When the particles move axially through the coil, an increment in the signal is detected. In addition, we observed a nonlinear additive behaviour of inductance in the same axial direction, i.e., changes in inductance due to partial volumes are not additive. An exponentially-like signal is detected when the particles move radially through the coil. Moreover, a linear additive behaviour of inductance is
    observed in this direction. Increasing the magnetic susceptibility has a significant effect on the detected signal. However, the susceptibility of SPIONs is relatively small in order to keep superparamagnetic properties. The coil inductance depends not only on the volume, or permeability of magnetic particles in its core, but also on how they are distributed inside.  
    }, author = {Ahmed, Doaa and Unterweger, Harald and Fischer, Georg and Schober, Robert and Kirchner, Jens}, language = {English}, booktitle = {IEEE SENSORS 2019}, cris = {https://cris.fau.de/converis/publicweb/publication/227807202}, year = {2019}, month = {10}, day = {27}, eventdate = {2019-10-27/2019-10-30}, faupublication = {yes}, keywords = {molecular communication,superparamagnetic nanoparticles,simulation,MC testbed,coils,magnetic fields}, peerreviewed = {unknown}, title = {Characterization of an Inductance-based Detector in Molecular Communication Testbed Based on Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles}, type = {Konferenzschrift}, venue = {Montreal, Canada, Canada}, }
  • N. Schlechtweg, S. Meyer, H. Unterweger, M. Bartunik, D. Ahmed, W. Wicke, V. Jamali Kooshkghazi, C. Alexiou, G. Fischer, R. Weigel, R. Schober, and J. Kirchner, "Magnetic Steering of Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles in Duct Flow for Molecular Communication: A Feasibility Study" in 14th EAI International Conference on Body Area Networks (BODYNETS 2019), Florenz, Italy, 2019 (to be published). [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{schlechtweg2019,
    abstract = {Molecular communication (MC) denotes information transmission by use of molecules and nanosized particles. For the realization of testbeds, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in duct
    flow have recently been proposed. Here, an experimental setup is provided to direct these particles at a branching of a tube into a specific direction by use of magnetic fields. 

    For that purpose, gold-coated SPIONs suspended in water at constant flow rate are considered at a Y-shaped connector of tubes. The particles are attracted by use of a custom-made electromagnet, while change of particle concentration in either of the branches is measured by a commercial susceptometer. The approach is evaluated for different flow rates and with the electromagnet both at a fixed position and moving along the tube. Exemplary measurements show that an information transmission is feasible in both approaches and with all tested flow rates. 

    The feasibility study hence shows that particle steering by use of magnetic fields is a viable approach, which is even robust against flow rate variations. It can thus be used in MC to address different transmission channels as well as to realize differential signal transmission. Furthermore, it might help to improve magnetic drug targeting in future applications.  
    }, author = {Schlechtweg, Niklas and Meyer, Sebastian and Unterweger, Harald and Bartunik, Max and Ahmed, Doaa and Wicke, Wayan and Jamali Kooshkghazi, Vahid and Alexiou, Christoph and Fischer, Georg and Weigel, Robert and Schober, Robert and Kirchner, Jens}, booktitle = {14th EAI International Conference on Body Area Networks (BODYNETS 2019)}, cris = {https://cris.fau.de/converis/publicweb/publication/222443031}, year = {2019}, month = {10}, day = {02}, eventdate = {2019-10-02/2019-10-03}, faupublication = {yes}, keywords = {Superparamagnetic nanoparticles; particle steering; magnetic field; duct flow; molecular communication}, note = {unpublished}, peerreviewed = {automatic}, title = {Magnetic Steering of Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles in Duct Flow for Molecular Communication: A Feasibility Study}, venue = {Florenz, Italy}, }

  • M. Bartunik, M. Lübke, H. Unterweger, C. Alexiou, S. Meyer, D. Ahmed, G. Fischer, W. Wicke, V. Jamali Kooshkghazi, R. Schober, and J. Kirchner, "Novel Receiver for Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in a Molecular Communication Setting" in Proceedings of the 6th ACM International Conference on Nanoscale Computing and Communication, NANOCOM 2019, Dublin, Ireland, 2019. [DOI] [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{bartunik2020,
    abstract = {Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have recently been introduced as information carriers in a testbed for molecular communication (MC) in duct flow. Here, a new receiver for this testbed is presented, based on the concept of a Wheatstone bridge. The capability for a reliable transmission using the testbed and detection of the proposed receiver was evaluated by sending a text message and a 80 bit random sequence at a bit rate of 1/s, which resulted in a bit error rate of 0 %. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the device was assessed by a dilution series, which gave a limit of detectability of peaks between 0:1 to 0:5 mg/mL. Compared to the commercial susceptometer that was previously used as receiver, the new detector provides an increased sampling rate of 100 samples/s and flexibility in the dimensions of the propagation channel. Furthermore, it allows to implement both single-ended and differential signaling in SPION-bases MC testbeds  
    }, author = {Bartunik, Max and Lübke, Maximilian and Unterweger, Harald and Alexiou, Christoph and Meyer, Sebastian and Ahmed, Doaa and Fischer, Georg and Wicke, Wayan and Jamali Kooshkghazi, Vahid and Schober, Robert and Kirchner, Jens}, language = {English}, publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery, Inc}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 6th ACM International Conference on Nanoscale Computing and Communication, NANOCOM 2019}, cris = {https://cris.fau.de/converis/publicweb/publication/222425642}, year = {2019}, month = {09}, day = {25}, doi = {10.1145/3345312.3345483}, eventdate = {2019-09-25/2019-09-27}, eventtitle = {6th ACM International Conference on Nanoscale Computing and Communication, NANOCOM 2019}, faupublication = {yes}, isbn = {9781450368971}, keywords = {Molecular communication; superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles; SPION; differtial signaling; receiver}, peerreviewed = {unknown}, title = {Novel Receiver for Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in a Molecular Communication Setting}, type = {Konferenzschrift}, venue = {Dublin, Ireland}, }
  • H. Unterweger, J. Kirchner, W. Wicke, A. Ahmadzadeh, D. Ahmed, V. Jamali Kooshkghazi, C. Alexiou, G. Fischer, R. Weigel, and R. Schober, "Experimental Molecular Communication Testbed Based on Magnetic Nanoparticles in Duct Flow" in 19th IEEE International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications, Kalamata, Greece, 2019. [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{unterweger2018,
    abstract = {Simple and easy to implement testbeds are needed to further advance molecular communication research. To this end, this paper presents an in-vessel molecular communication testbed using magnetic nanoparticles dispersed in an aqueous suspension as they are also used for drug targeting in biotechnology. The transmitter is realized by an electronic pump for injection via a Yconnector. A second pump provides a background flow for signal propagation. For signal reception, we employ a susceptometer, an electronic device including a coil, where the magnetic particles move through and generate an electrical signal. We present experimental results for the transmission of a binary sequence and the system response following a single injection. For this flowdriven particle transport, we propose a simple parameterized mathematical model for evaluating the system response. 
    }, author = {Unterweger, Harald and Kirchner, Jens and Wicke, Wayan and Ahmadzadeh, Arman and Ahmed, Doaa and Jamali Kooshkghazi, Vahid and Alexiou, Christoph and Fischer, Georg and Weigel, Robert and Schober, Robert}, language = {English}, booktitle = {19th IEEE International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications}, cris = {https://cris.fau.de/converis/publicweb/publication/203248614}, year = {2019}, month = {06}, day = {25}, eventdate = {2018-06-25/2018-06-28}, faupublication = {yes}, keywords = {Molecular communication; magnetic nanoparticles}, peerreviewed = {Yes}, title = {Experimental Molecular Communication Testbed Based on Magnetic Nanoparticles in Duct Flow}, type = {Konferenzschrift}, venue = {Kalamata, Greece}, }
  • D. Ahmed, G. Fischer, and J. Kirchner, "Simulation-based Models of the Galvanic Coupling Intra-body Communication" in 2019 IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium, Sophia Antipolis, France, France, 2019. [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{ahmed2019,
    abstract = {Human body communication (HBC) uses the human body as a transmission medium for electrical signal at very low power consumption. In this paper, we provided two simulationbased arm models. In the first model, we studied the effect of introducing different types and thicknesses of tissues in the path of signal transmission on the detected signal. In the second model, we introduced different bending angles to the model and examined its effect on the detected signal. The results showed that the signal attenuates very rapidly in the skin tissue, although it has the lowest conductivity. On the other hand, no signal decay is noticed in the fat tissue. Despite the highest attenuation constant of the muscle tissue, adding it the model improves the detected signal at receiver. Increasing the thickness of the muscle layer reduces the electric potential difference at transmitter, while improves the detected signal at receiver. For the bended model, we found that the bending helps to improve the received signal at small angles because the signal takes the shortest path from transmitter to receiver. For larger angles, the discrepancy between this short path and main transmission length will be reduced until they are equal at angle 180°.
    }, author = {Ahmed, Doaa and Fischer, Georg and Kirchner, Jens}, language = {English}, booktitle = {2019 IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium}, cris = {https://cris.fau.de/converis/publicweb/publication/214826646}, year = {2019}, month = {03}, day = {11}, eventdate = {2019-03-11/2019-03-13}, faupublication = {yes}, keywords = {human body communication,intra-body communication,galvanic coupling,simulation}, peerreviewed = {unknown}, title = {Simulation-based Models of the Galvanic Coupling Intra-body Communication}, type = {Konferenzschrift}, venue = {Sophia Antipolis, France, France}, }

2018

  • H. Unterweger, J. Kirchner, W. Wicke, A. Ahmadzadeh, D. Ahmed, V. Jamali, C. Alexiou, G. Fischer, and R. Schober, "Experimental Molecular Communication Testbed Based on Magnetic Nanoparticles in Duct Flow" in 2018 IEEE 19th International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC), Kalamata, Greece, 2018. [DOI] [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{unterweger2018a,
    abstract = {Simple and easy to implement testbeds are needed to further advance molecular communication research. To this end, this paper presents an in-vessel molecular communication testbed using magnetic nanoparticles dispersed in an aqueous suspension as they are also used for drug targeting in biotechnology. The transmitter is realized by an electronic pump for injection via a Y-connector. A second pump provides a background flow for signal propagation. For signal reception, we employ a susceptometer, an electronic device including a coil, where the magnetic particles move through and generate an electrical signal. We present experimental results for the transmission of a binary sequence and the system response following a single injection. For this flow-driven particle transport, we propose a simple parameterized mathematical model for evaluating the system Response.
    }, author = {Unterweger, Harald and Kirchner, Jens and Wicke, Wayan and Ahmadzadeh, Arman and Ahmed, Doaa and Jamali, Vahid and Alexiou, Christoph and Fischer, Georg and Schober, Robert}, editor = {IEEE}, language = {English}, booktitle = {2018 IEEE 19th International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC)}, cris = {https://cris.fau.de/converis/publicweb/publication/223643718}, year = {2018}, month = {06}, day = {25}, doi = {10.1109/SPAWC.2018.8446011}, eventdate = {2018-06-25/2018-06-28}, faupublication = {yes}, isbn = {9781538635124}, issn = {1948-3252}, keywords = {Electron tubes; Magnetic nanoparticles; Receivers; Molecular communication; Suspensions; Magnetic susceptibility; Transmitters}, peerreviewed = {Yes}, title = {Experimental Molecular Communication Testbed Based on Magnetic Nanoparticles in Duct Flow}, type = {Journal Article}, venue = {Kalamata, Greece}, }

2017

  • D. Ahmed, J. Kirchner, and G. Fischer, "Wave Propagation with Human Body Communications in BANs" in 2017 IEEE MTT-S International Conference on Numerical Electromagnetic and Multiphysics Modeling and Optimization for RF, Microwave, and Terahertz Applications (NEMO), Sevilla, Spain, 2017, pp. 16-18. [DOI] [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{ahmed2017,
    abstract = {Today's interest in health assistance systems, sport activities and remote patient monitoring require distributing various types of sensors at specific places across the human body. These sensors might be used to measure temperature, blood pressure level, blood glucose level and the like. This implies collecting the data generated at the distributed sensors in a wireless Body Area Network (BAN) and fusing these data at a central processing unit, which transfers the data, if needed, to a hospital or medical center for diagnosing. Whereas, transmission could be done for real time or stored data depending on the application scenario. However, sending data wirelessly is typically a very energy intensive task implying large batteries. Hence, BAN networks have been developed by IEEE 802.15.Task Group (TG6) to serve a variety of applications including medical, consumer lifestyle and entertainment applications at low power consumption. Human Body Communication is a non-RF propagation system in BAN network that utilizes the human body as a transmission medium to transfer data between several points inside, on or sometimes near the human body using electrodes, rather than antennas based on near field communication and quasistatic field approximations.},
    author = {Ahmed, Doaa and Kirchner, Jens and Fischer, Georg},
    language = {English},
    booktitle = {2017 IEEE MTT-S International Conference on Numerical Electromagnetic and Multiphysics Modeling and Optimization for RF, Microwave, and Terahertz Applications (NEMO)},
    cris = {https://cris.fau.de/converis/publicweb/publication/108446624},
    year = {2017},
    month = {07},
    day = {03},
    doi = {10.1109/NEMO.2017.7964172},
    eventdate = {2017-05-17/2017-05-19},
    faupublication = {yes},
    isbn = {9781509048373},
    keywords = {Body Area Communication; Galvanic Coupling; Human Arm Model},
    pages = {16--18},
    peerreviewed = {Yes},
    title = {Wave Propagation with Human Body Communications in BANs},
    type = {Konferenzschrift},
    venue = {Sevilla, Spain},
    }
  • D. Ahmed, J. Kirchner, and G. Fischer, "Wave Propagation with HBC in a Human Arm Model" in 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications (MeMeA), Rochester, MN, USA, 2017, pp. 448-452. [DOI] [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{ahmed2017a,
    abstract = {Today’s interest in health assistance systems, sport activities, person’s vital signs observing and remote patient monitoring require distributing various types of sensors at specific places across the human body. These sensors might be used to measure temperature, blood pressure level, blood glucose level and the like. This implies collecting the data generated at the distributed sensors in a wireless Body Area Network (BAN) and fusing these data at an access point (e.g. wristwatch) and then to a central processing unit (i.e., PC) for diagnosing, as shown in Fig. 1. However, sending data wirelessly is typically a very energy intensive task implying large batteries. Hence, BAN networks have been developed by IEEE 802.15.Task Group (TG6) to serve a variety of applications including medical, consumer lifestyle and the like at a low power consumption. Human Body Communications (HBC) is one technique used in BAN networks that utilizes the human body as a transmission medium to transfer data between sensors on, in or at the proximity of the human body using electrodes (i.e., electrical conductors).},
    author = {Ahmed, Doaa and Kirchner, Jens and Fischer, Georg},
    language = {English},
    booktitle = {2017 IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications (MeMeA)},
    cris = {https://cris.fau.de/converis/publicweb/publication/109721304},
    year = {2017},
    month = {07},
    day = {20},
    doi = {10.1109/MEMEA.2017.7985918},
    eventdate = {2017-05-07/2017-05-10},
    faupublication = {yes},
    isbn = {9781509029846},
    keywords = {Body Area Communication; Galvanic Coupling; Human Arm Model},
    pages = {448--452},
    peerreviewed = {Yes},
    title = {Wave Propagation with HBC in a Human Arm Model},
    type = {Konferenzschrift},
    venue = {Rochester, MN, USA},
    }

COPYRIGHT NOTICE: Copyright and all rights of the material above are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by the appropriate copyright. The material may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.

COPYRIGHT NOTICE FOR IEEE PUBLICATIONS: © IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.

COPYRIGHT NOTICE FOR EUMA PUBLICATIONS: © EUMA. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from European Microwave Association(EUMA) must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.